Tartaric acid belongs to the group of alpha-hydroxy acids. Just like lactic acid or glycolic acid, it is a fruit acid. Let's focus on this active ingredient with multiple benefits against the signs of aging.
Skin aging: Tartaric acid to diminish the appearance of fine lines.
Tartaric Acid: Definition and Properties.
Also known as threaric acid and 2,3-dihydroxysuccinic acid, thetartaric acid is widely found in nature. It can be found in grapes and vine leaves, as well as in dandelions, sugar beets, and many fruits. In the 18th century, it was first isolated from grapes by Carl Wilhem SCHEEL, a Swedish apothecary. Since the mid-20th century, it can be produced from the residues of wine production, using sulfuric acid.
It is commonly used in the food industry to enhance the taste of candies, ice creams, and juices, among other things. Thetartaric acid has become a common ingredient in skincare products due to its keratolytic and astringent properties. It hydrates the skin, stimulates metabolism, promotes healing, and also has an anti-aging effect. It comes in the form of a crystalline powder. Being an AHA, tartaric acid is water-soluble and acts on the skin's surface. Its action mainly targets signs of aging, spots, acne, as well as damage caused to the skin by the sun.
Tartaric acid to combat the appearance of fine lines.
Fine lines are small wrinkles that primarily appear on the face (around the eyes, on the forehead, at the corners of the lips). These are shallow folds that form on the skin's surface, typically due to repeated movements over time. Even though some people naturally have fine lines, they are often associated with visible signs of aging.
The emergence of fine lines is commonly caused by aging. However, there are several other factors that explain the presence of fine lines on the face: poor diet, unhealthy lifestyle (consumption of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, excessive fats, etc.), stress, pollution, and prolonged exposure to the sun, which dries the skin and accelerates skin aging.
Skin aging results in a slowdown in cellular renewal. Thanks to the mechanical action of tartaric acid dermabrasion, the superficial layer of the skin is renewed.
Furthermore, tartaric acid protects the skin from free radicals. As a reminder, throughout life, the body's cells are subjected to oxidative stress. This refers to the generation of highly reactive molecules known as free radicals. These are omnipresent in the process of cellular metabolism and can interact with DNA, proteins, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body, causing DNA chain breaks and oxidative damage such as lipid metabolism oxidation. All these alterations are the main internal causes of aging and skin dysfunctions.
This observation has led to a revolution in the cosmetic field; for several years, the focus has been on antioxidants and free radical scavengers in the prevention and management of skin aging. In this regard, tartaric acid is a very interesting compound. Chemically, this compound has free hydroxyl functions carried by aromatic cycles. These capture free radicals and stabilize them by providing the missing electron. They are thus less reactive and no longer degrade the compounds present at the level of skin cells.
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TAKÁCS-NOVÁK & al. Synthesis and characterization of long-chain tartaric acid diamides as novel ceramide-like compounds. Molecules (2010).
ABELS C. & al. Cosmetic and dermatologic use of alpha hydroxy acids. Journal of the German Society of Dermatology (2012).