Regarded as a secondary messenger involved in all of the body's biochemical reactions, calcium is the trace element that triggers the differentiation phases of skin cells. It promotes skin repair and contributes to the reconstruction of the stratum corneum. Let's focus on this skin-active ingredient with regenerative properties.
What is "Calcium PCA" and what is its utility?
Calcium, an essential mineral for the human body.
Calcium is a trace element naturally present in the human body(1 to 1.2 kg in adults). This mineral plays a crucial role in bone structure and hardening, while also stimulating the proper functioning of the body. Indeed, it is essential for blood clotting, muscle contraction, and certain hormonal processes. A calcium deficiency can lead to bone deformation in children and decalcification in adults. Conversely, an excess of calcium can lead to the formation of stones in the kidneys. The recommended daily intake of calcium is between 1 and 2 g for an adult.
What is Calcium PCA?
Calcium PCA, also known as calcium PCA salt, is a derivative of PCA orpyrrolidone carboxylic acid. This molecule is derived from the amino acid glutamic acid, which is naturally present in the body. Chemically, PCA has a carboxyl function that can create a bond with a mineral. Calcium PCA is obtained through a two-step mechanism. First, the PCA is formed bythermal cyclization of glutamic acid derived from beetroot.Then, achemical reactionis carried out between thepreviously formed PCAand thecalcium oxide (CaO). The medium is stirred, then filtered and atomized to obtain a pure compound, calcium PCA.
The combination of PCA with a mineral enhances its cosmetic activity. Thus, PCA plays a role as askin moisturizer, while calcium is involved in cell renewal and promotes skin repair. Calcium PCA is therefore an activemoisturizerandregenerator. It is described as a physio-restructuring agent for damaged and mature skin.
The benefits of calcium PCA for the skin.
Most of the calcium in the skin is located in the most superficial layer, the epidermis, which is composed of keratinocytes. Several studies have demonstrated the crucial role of this mineral in repairing the barrier function and cutaneous homeostasis (a self-regeneration mechanism where the number of new skin cells compensates for the number of dead and desquamated cells).
The renewal of the epidermis occurs approximately every 60 days: over 80 billion keratinocytes are replaced by new cells. However, with age, this rate of keratinocyte turnover slows down significantly. The epidermis thins, the skin slackens, and wrinkles deepen. The barrier function of the hydrolipidic film becomes less effective, and the skin is less well protected against external aggressions. When applied topically, calcium stimulates cell renewal and thus slows down the appearance of wrinkles. Moreover, it is capable of activating the synthesis of total epidermal lipids, particularly ceramides. As a reminder, ceramides are in cohesion with other lipids such as cholesterol and form a highly ordered lamellar structure called the skin barrier. This barrier helps to limit transepidermal water loss, also known as insensible water loss. In other words, it is essential for maintaining a good level of skin hydration and protecting the skin from external aggressions.
Thus, calcium PCA ensures skin hydration through PCA and stimulates cellular renewal, delaying the appearance of aging signs. In a cosmetic formula, the recommended dosage for this active ingredient is between0.5 and 3%.
In which skincare products can one find calcium PCA?
Calcium PCA is primarily an active ingredient intended for dry, mature, damaged, or sensitive skin. It is present in certain skin care products such as restructuring serums, day/night creams, and masks. In body care, it can be found in some lotions and creams.
Ourblemish-fighting & regenerating complexwith 5 minerals is a revitalizing serum that regulates sebum production and optimizes cell renewal and longevity. The skin becomes firmer, more elastic, and blemishes are reduced. It is enriched with zinc, calcium, manganese, magnesium, and sodium and should be applied morning and evening, on clean, dry skin.
INOUE K. & al. Influx of calcium and chloride ions into epidermal keratinocytes regulates exocytosis of epidermal lamellar bodies and skin permeability barrier homeostasis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2003).
RICHTER K. & al. Skin aging, gene expression and calcium. Experimental Gerontology (2015).