What is hidden behind the PP(-) skin type classification?
What is the meaning of the term PP(-)?
Skin Aging DECLARED
Oxidation Factor PROTECTED
Sebum Production LOW (-)
The "P" for Pronounced Signs of Aging.
The first letter "P" indicates that skin aging is well established. On mature skin, after the age of fifty, expression lines that appeared earlier (crow's feet at the corners of the eyes, frown lines...) become increasingly pronounced, with loss of firmness being the cause. Cellular degeneration continues, coupled with a reduction in the number and size of fat cells in the fatty tissue of the hypodermis, the deepest layer of the skin. This decrease leads to a loss of volume and firmness, which will hollow out the cheeks.
Furthermore, in women, during menopause, deficiencies in estrogen and progesterone exacerbate the chronological aging of the skin. Indeed, estrogens stimulated keratinocytes, the synthesis of hyaluronic acid and collagen, and inhibited the growth of hair follicles. However, with this abrupt drop in the secretion of female hormones, we observe an increased skin dryness, a modification of the barrier function, and a loss of radiance.
The letter "P" stands for Protect against oxidation factors.
The letter "P" signifies that the skin is well protected against the sun's UV rays. Beyond their beneficial effects on mood or vitamin D secretion, excessive sun exposure is the main cause of premature skin aging and the onset of skin cancers. Indeed, UVA rays can cause dermal changes , especially in elastic tissue, and UVB rays can lead to epidermal damage. Activation of free radicals, alteration of the cell membrane, DNA modification... UV rays act differently within skin cells to generate damage, which can alter the cell's function, cause its death, or provoke DNA mutations that eventually lead to the formation of cancerous cells. Thus, even though the skin has some defenses against UV rays (melanogenesis, endogenous antioxidant system...), it is important to regularly and adequately apply a sunscreen product suited to one's phototype and sun exposure conditions for reasonable exposure while limiting risks.
The symbol "-" for Low Sebum Production.
The "-" indicates a decrease in the efficiency of the sebaceous glands to produce enough sebum (sebaceous hyposecretion), as well as a discrepancy in the synthesis of natural moisturizing factors by keratinocytes, which give the skin the ability to retain water. Tightness, irritation, dehydration fine lines, redness, flaking, dull complexion... are characteristic of this skin type.
Indeed, this lack of lipids reduces the effectiveness of the hydrolipidic film. The skin then becomes vulnerable to all forms of aggression (UV rays, pollution, bacteria, etc.), triggering inflammatory responses, and no longer effectively prevents transepidermal water evaporation. Additionally, this alteration in the barrier function leads to a dysregulation of Langerhans cells (cells of the immune system), which begin to induce disproportionate inflammatory responses when they are overly stimulated.
Several factors can influence this low sebum secretion, leading to these disturbances: frequent washing, certain medicinal treatments, inappropriate care, seasonal variations, tobacco, UV radiation, genetics... However, although this skin type is more prone to wrinkle formation due to its less flexible nature, it is, on the other hand, less susceptible to skin sagging since its thinner epidermis is less affected by the effects of gravitational pull.