Skin Type PE(-), what are the characteristics?
What is hidden behind the initials PE(-)?
Skin Aging PRONOUNCED
Oxidation Factor OVERVIEW
Sebum Production LOW(-)
The "P" for Pronounced Signs of Aging.
The first letter "P" indicates that skin aging is well established. On mature skin, after the age of fifty, expression lines that appeared earlier (crow's feet at the corners of the eyes, frown lines...) become increasingly pronounced, with loss of firmness being the cause. Cellular degeneration continues, coupled with a reduction in the number and size of fat cells in the fatty tissue of the hypodermis, the deepest layer of the skin. This decrease leads to a loss of volume and firmness, which will hollow out the cheeks.
Furthermore, in women, during menopause, deficiencies in estrogen and progesterone exacerbate the chronological aging of the skin. Indeed, estrogens stimulated keratinocytes, the synthesis of hyaluronic acid and collagen, and inhibited the growth of hair follicles. However, with this abrupt drop in the secretion of female hormones, there is an increased skin dryness, a change in the barrier function, and a loss of radiance.
The letter "E" for Exposure to oxidation factors.
The "E" indicates that the skin is highly exposed to external aggressions (solar radiation, air pollution, tobacco, stress, thealcohol...), as well as insufficient sun protection habits relative to the phototype and exposure rhythm. These factors promote the production of free radicals, highly unstable and reactive molecules that can have a lasting impact on the skin. However, this action is normal in all living organisms that consume oxygen.
However, in the event of an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the body's natural ability to neutralize them, oxidative stress sets in and skin damage occurs. Indeed, these reactive oxygen species contribute to the degeneration of skin cells, both at the level of the epidermis and the dermis. All vital components of the skin such as collagen, hyaluronic acid, elastin, lipids, and DNA find themselves under attack, thereby causing damage and malfunctions.
This oxidation process can thus affect the structure of the skin, leading to premature skin aging or even cancer. Initially superficial wrinkles that gradually deepen, less firm skin, and a duller complexion can start to appear, even before aging. To slow down their action and thus prevent premature skin aging, the daily application of antioxidant-based treatments, in addition to an appropriate sun protection , is recommended.
The symbol "-" for Low Sebum Production.
The "-" indicates a decrease in the ability of the sebaceous glands to produce enough sebum (sebaceous hyposecretion), as well as a discrepancy in the synthesis of natural moisturizing factors by keratinocytes, which give the skin the ability to retain water. Tightness, irritation, dehydration fine lines, redness, flaking, dull complexion... are characteristic of this skin type.
Indeed, this lack of lipids reduces the effectiveness of the hydrolipidic film. The skin then becomes vulnerable to all forms of aggression (UV rays, pollution, bacteria, etc.), triggering inflammatory responses, and no longer effectively prevents transepidermal water evaporation. Additionally, this alteration in the barrier function leads to a dysregulation of Langerhans cells (cells of the immune system), which begin to induce disproportionate inflammatory responses when they are overly stimulated.
Several factors can influence this low sebum secretion, leading to these disturbances: frequent washing, certain medicinal treatments, inappropriate care, seasonal variations, tobacco, UV radiation, genetics... However, although this skin type is more prone to wrinkle formation due to its less flexible nature, it is, on the other hand, less susceptible to skin sagging since its thinner epidermis suffers less from the effects of gravitational pull.