Various plants possess virtues beneficial to our body. Calendula is one of them and is already found in the composition of many beauty products. To incorporate it into these products, it is often found in the form of a macerate. Continue reading to learn more about calendula oil.
Everything you need to know about calendula.
- A closer look at calendula
- Cosmetics: In what form does calendula present itself?
- Bioactive fraction of calendula: What are the main classes of phytoconstituents?
- The beneficial effects of calendula
- Are there any contraindications for the topical use of calendula?
- Typology products based on calendula
A closer look at calendula.
Calendula (Calendula officinalis) is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant, a member of the Asteraceae family, just like arnica. Originating from the Mediterranean region, it can now be found in other regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. It is also known by other names that reflect its solar nature: "garden marigold", "sun herb", "marygold", or even "bride of the sun" as named by the German philosopher and theologian Albert the Great.
Its scientific name "Calendula" comes from the Latin "kalendae" which means "first day of the month" in the Roman calendar, named so because it blooms every month, from the end of spring to the beginning of winter in Mediterranean regions. Similarly, its vernacular name "marigold" is derived from the Latin "solsequia" meaning "who follows the sun." This refers specifically to the characteristic of its yellow-orange flowers to follow the sun's rhythm, that is, by closing in the evening and delicately reopening at the first rays of the sun (a phenomenon known as nyctinasty).
Its flowers make calendula a popular decorative plant in indoor gardens. It is also sometimes used in food, particularly as a coloring agent in place of saffron, which it closely resembles in color. Calendula extract has been valued for several years for its therapeutic properties and is traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine systems, notably for treating wounds, rashes, infections, inflammations, and many other conditions.
The Egyptians and Romans of antiquity used it to treat wounds. In the Middle Ages, the Greeks employed it to address liver obstructions, snake bites, and to strengthen the heart. In the 18th century, it was used as a natural remedy for headaches, jaundice, and red eyes. The calendula plant was also an ingredient in an ointment used during World War I to treat soldiers' skin, as well as to cure measles and smallpox. Even today, this flower is used in various forms in the field of cosmetics (sunscreens, serums, balms, gels, etc.).
Cosmetics: In what form does calendula present itself?
In the field of cosmetics, calendula flowers are used to obtain various forms of extract.
Theessential oil of calendula is an aromatic substance rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, which can be obtained from calendula flowers through various extraction techniques: hydrodistillation, steam distillation, percolation, organic solvent extraction, and supercritical CO2 extraction.
Extracted simultaneously with the essential oil through the same process (steam distillation), thecalendula hydrosol is a water that has been minimally charged with aromatic molecules during the operation, with a concentration of 0.2 to 2% on average. As a result, the floral water has a lighter fragrance and is gentler than the essential oil, without any contraindications (pregnancy, breastfeeding, sensitive skin, etc.).
Unlike vegetable oils, the calendula oil macerate is a lipid extract typically obtained by soaking calendula petals in a suitable carrier oil such as sunflower oil or olive oil.
Bioactive fraction of calendula: What are the main classes of phytoconstituents?
Used in a multitude of cosmetic formulations (creams, lotions, shampoos, etc.), the calendula contains several phytochemical substances that give it its numerous properties.
|Terpenoids and terpenes (bisabolol, chamazulene, oleanolic acid)
|Triterpenic alcohols (faradiol, α- and β-amyrins, taraxasterol, lupeol, arnidol and its esters)
|Triterpenic Saponins (Oleanolic Acid Glycosides)
|Anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, anti-microbial
|Carotenoids (rubixanthin, β-carotene, lutein, flavoxanthin, luteoxanthin)
|Flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol)
|Antioxidants, Anti-inflammatory, Angiogenic
|Fatty Acids (Calendic Acid)
Note : The natural biochemical composition of a calendula extract can vary depending on the chosen extraction method.
The beneficial effects of calendula.
Known for its ornamental plant characteristics, the topical application of the floral infusion of Calendula officinalis L. has also been used for medical purposes since the 12th century. It is believed to exhibit several biological activities.
Alleviating inflammation and soothing irritated skin.
Thanks to its content of flavonoids and terpenoids, calendula is recommended for alleviating signs and symptoms of the inflammatory response. Its application is particularly advised for sensitive skin or skin prone to inflammation. It is also recognized for its ability to reduce edema or congestion due to minor burns and/or sunburns. Therefore, calendula could potentially be effective in treating a number of skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, diaper rash, burns or insect bites.
Promote a faster wound healing process.
It is traditionally reported that calendula accelerates the repair of damaged tissues. Venous ulcers, skin wounds, burns... several animal and clinical studies have revealed that calendula has the ability to stimulate fibroplasia, keratoplasia, and angiogenesis. Therefore, the extracts of Calendula officinalis would positively impact the proliferative phases of the skin wound healing process.
Delaying premature skin aging.
Calendula is rich in antioxidants, such as flavonoids and carotenoids, which shield the skin from the damaging effects of free radicals, the primary culprits of premature cell degeneration and environmental damage (pollution, sun exposure, tobacco, etc.). Moreover, this plant extract also impacts the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) stimulated by exposure to UVB radiation, which could reduce the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines, rendering the skin visibly smoother.
Providing sun protection.
Besides, calendula essential oil would offer photoprotective benefits and record a sun protection factor (SPF) in vitro between 8 and 14, thus helping to protect and limit the damage of UV rays on the skin. However, it cannot be considered a natural alternative to UV filters. Its low SPF value does not allow it to guarantee a minimum level of protection and therefore cannot replace a sunscreen. On the other hand, calendula can be added to a sunscreen formula to take advantage of its photoprotective and antioxidant properties.
It is globally recommended to prioritize a sun care product, combining mineral and organic filters, with a SPF of 30 or higher in order to preserve one's sun capital.
Combatting certain infectious diseases: Previous studies have demonstrated antifungal activity (Candida albicans, etc.) and antibacterial properties of calendula. It has proven effective against a broad spectrum of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, etc.). As a result, calendula extract is considered potentially useful for treating and preventing certain cases ofacne. However, the phytochemicals of this plant against microorganisms need to be characterized and their toxicity evaluated in vivo. Furthermore, additional research is necessary to substantiate these findings.
Are there any contraindications for the topical use of calendula?
The calendula is a gentle plant-based ingredient that is generally well tolerated by all skin types. Even individuals with dry, irritated, or sensitive skin can benefit from the use of calendula. However, as it can potentially trigger a hypersensitivity reaction, it is recommended to perform a skin tolerance test on a small area of your skin before using calendula and its preparations for the first time.
Indeed, belonging to the Asteraceae family, just like sunflowers, daisies, marigolds, etc., it is possible that you may also be allergic to calendula. Besides individuals allergic to calendula, it is also advised for pregnant women and those who are breastfeeding not to use calendula and products containing it without their doctor's advice.
Typology products based on calendula.
The Calendula officinalis is known for its medicinal properties. Calendula extract is often added as an ingredient to cosmetic products (ointments, balms, creams, lotions, shampoos, etc.), from which sensitive skin and those prone to redness can derive the most benefits, although it can be used alone. We have formulated four products based on calendula oil macerate (INCI: Calendula Officinalis Flowers Oil x Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil).
The lipid-replenishing balm has been designed for daily use on dry and atopic-prone skin. It is used as a moisturizing treatment for the entire body, including the face, and can be used from birth. Without a sticky finish, it envelops the skin with a pleasant sensation upon application and contributes to the renewal of the skin's microbiota balance, offering the skin flexibility, comfort, and softness. The components of this product - ceramides, postbiotics (INCI: Lactococcus Ferment Lysate), shea butter (INCI: Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter), extract of Ophiopogon japonicus (INCI: Ophiopogon Japonicus Root Extract) and camelina oil (INCI: Camelina Sativa Seed Oil) - support the natural functions of the epidermis and protect it from drying out.
Body, face, eyelids, hands, the anti-itch concentrate has been specially developed to care for the skin of infants, children, and adults prone to eczema. With its lipid-replenishing complex (shea butter, ceramides, camelina oil, calendula macerate), enoxolone (INCI: Glycyrrhetinic Acid) , bisabolol , and extract of Ophiopogon japonicus, this treatment helps to restore the weakened skin barrier, to instantly relieve the skin from unpleasant sensations of irritation, to limit the urge to scratch and to delay the acute drying phase of the skin.
With a high-tolerance formulation, the anti-dandruff concentrate is a device developed to improve the symptoms of psoriasis. It activates the reduction of scaly plaques and spaces their reappearance thanks to the gentle action of allantoin, a keratolytic active ingredient. This cream is also enriched with a soothing agent, the phytosterols. The natural lipid-replenishing complex based on shea butter, ceramides, camelina oil, and calendula oil helps to reduce the dry appearance and restore skin comfort. This emulsion is suitable for children from 3 years old, teenagers, and adults for use on the entire body, including the face, and the scalp.
Non-greasy, the soothing night serum is composed of a blend of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ingredients - calendula oil, CBD (INCI: Cannabidiol), hemp oil (INCI: Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil), black cumin oil (INCI: Nigella Sativa Seed Oil), green tea extract (INCI: Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract) and sesame oil (INCI: Sesamum Indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil) - to alleviate all types of redness and soothe irritated, dry, and sensitive skin. This oily care with a light and fluid texture is easily absorbed, making the skin supple and soft. Use it as the final step in your evening skincare routine.
SNYDER P. W. & al. Final report of the cosmetic ingredient review expert panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients. International Journal of Toxicology (2010).
EBRAHIMZADEH M. A. & al. Calendula extract: effects on mechanical parameters of human skin. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica (2011).
TRIPATHI D. K. & al. Organoleptic properties in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological activities of Calendula officinalis Linn: An over review. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (2011).
CORADINI C. Z. & al. Evaluation of biologically active compounds from Calendula officinalis flowers using spectrophotometry. Chemistry Central Journal (2012).