Three products for a radiant, customizable tan — without UV rays

Three products for a radiant, customizable tan — without UV rays

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Différents types d'hyperpigmentation.

How to recognize different types of pigmented spots?

Due to hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, pigmented spots can appear on the skin of the face, hands, or other parts of the body. Although they are unsightly and difficult to conceal, they are benign most of the time. To identify them, a thorough diagnosis may be necessary.

What are pigmented spots?

Melanin is a natural pigment found in the body. It determines the color of the eyes, hair, and skin. In cases of melanin overproduction, brown, red, or pink spots may appear, impacting the uniformity of the skin tone. There are also instances where the amount of melanin produced by the body is not sufficient. In this case, it results in a condition called hypopigmentation, which leads to the appearance of white spots. Pigmentation spots are thus the result of changes in the normal color of the skin. They can affect all skin types, but are often more frequent and visible in individuals with darker skin.

What are the different types of pigmented spots?

Depending on their origins, pigmented spots are classified into several categories:

  • Sun spots (lentigo or age spots), caused by prolonged and repeated exposure to the sun's UV rays.

    As a reminder, the production of melanin by melanocytes increases under the influence of UV rays, and pigment irregularities can occur. They primarily appear on the most frequently exposed parts of the body (such as the face, but also the backs of the hands, neckline, back...). Be aware, the use of certain photosensitizing medications can promote the development of lentigines. Moreover, lentigo can also be caused byskin aging. With age, the skin fails to fully protect itself from external aggressions and deteriorates. A dysfunction of the melanocytes is observed, associated with the exhaustion of their pigment potential at the level of the hair follicles. This phenomenon is attributed to the consequences of repeated attacks of reactive oxygen species (or free radicals) on the nuclei of melanocytes and mitochondria. When this happens, the skin becomes vulnerable to UV rays, which are responsible for pigment spots often referred to as "age spots". To prevent this, at any age, it is therefore essential to apply asunscreen suitable for your skin tone before sun exposure.

  • Melasma, pigmentation spots caused by hormonal fluctuations.

    Also known as chloasma or melasma, these hyperpigmentation marks are caused by hormonal changes. They occur during pregnancy but also following the use of contraceptive pills or hormone replacement therapy. Indeed, hormones stimulate melanocytes, thus leading to an overproduction of melanin. It's worth noting, pregnancy mask generally disappears after childbirth, although it may take some time. Moreover, this type of hyperpigmentation is not exclusive to women. According to the American Academy of Dermatology, 10% of melasma cases affect men.

  • Thepost-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

    These areflat brown to black spots, depending on skin color, that occur following a skin lesion or inflammation (acne flare-ups, burns, injuries, insect bites...). Thispost-inflammatory hyperpigmentationis due to anexcessive production of melanin, a pigment present in the skin whose main function is to protect skin cells from UV rays. Indeed, during inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines will stimulate the activity of melanocytes (cells that produce melanin). This type of mark is more common in mixed to dark phototypes. To reduce them, it is recommended to apply daily treatments containing the following active ingredients: azelaic acid, arbutin acid, niacinamide, vitamin C, chemical exfoliants (AHA, BHA and PHA), retinoids. If this is not effective, certain procedures can be performed by a dermatologist: chemical peels, laser treatment, prescription of hydroquinone or even use of pulsed light.

Note : Pigment spots can also be ofgenetic origin like freckles,which appear at the time of birth. This phenomenon, usually associated with fair skin, poses no danger to the body.


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