Known for its fragrance, Damask rose essential oil is also a friend to mature skin. Here are the main characteristics of this plant, as well as its benefits when applied topically.
The benefits of Damask rose essential oil on the skin.
The Damask rose or the queen of flowers.
The Damask rose is believed to have originated in Persia. It was introduced to France through the Crusades during the Middle Ages, brought back by French knights from Damascus. The Damask rose bush (Rosa damascena) is a hybrid of three different rose species: Rosa Gallica, Rosa Phoenicia or Rosa Moschata and Rosa fedtschenkoana.
At present, over 200 species of roses and more than 18,000 cultivars of the plant have been identified. Besides the use of Rosa damascena as ornamental plants in parks, gardens, and homes, they are primarily cultivated for use in the perfume, cosmetics, medicine, and food industries.
In the Middle East, the popularity of the Damask rose is tied to sacred beliefs about it. It is nicknamed the flower of the Prophet Mohammed (Gole mohammadi), its pleasant aroma reminiscent of the Prophet.
The Damask rose essential oil, in a nutshell.
Derived from a double distillation process using steam carried out from rose petals, this essential oil is valuable due to its low yield.
About 5 tons of petals are required to produce just 1 kg of essential oil.
From an organoleptic perspective, this essential oil presents itself as a liquid that can solidify below 20°C, with a light yellow color and the characteristic floral scent of rose.
The benefits of Damask rose essential oil for the skin.
Due to its biochemical composition, theDamask rose essential oil is recognized for the following properties:
Regenerative and firming, it effectively combats the signs of aging.
The monoterpene alcohols it contains (citronellol, nerol, and geraniol) tighten tissues and thus limit the sagging of the skin that appears over the years. Furthermore, researchers have demonstrated its ability to stimulate the expression of the collagen-I gene. In other words, this essential oil is a true tissue and cellular regenerator.
As an antioxidant, it protects the skin from external aggressors that accelerate skin aging.
As a reminder, this phenomenon known as oxidative stress is characterized by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species, also known as free radicals, when cells are exposed to stress. The sources of stress are numerous, the main ones being UV exposure, pollution, tobacco smoke, and a diet too rich in fats and/or sugars. Free radicals are particularly unstable molecules due to their unpaired electron. They tend to react with other molecules to form an electron pair, and in doing so, cause damage to cells, DNA, and body proteins such as collagen and elastin. They are notably involved in lipid peroxidation, a degradation reaction of the constituents of cell membranes. This accelerates aging and deepens wrinkles on the skin's surface. Therefore, Damask rose essential oil is an excellent ally in preventing skin aging and combating the appearance and/or accentuation of wrinkles.
As an anti-inflammatory, it soothes redness.
The Estersmonoterpenic present in this essential oil have a beneficial action against acute and chronic inflammations. Furthermore, a study has demonstrated the inhibitory action of citronellol on the degranulation of mast cells and thus on the releaseof large quantities of histamine which promotes inflammatory responses.
Note: For topical application, theDamask rose essential oil should not be used undiluted. It must always be diluted in a carrier oil before applying it to the skin (5% essential oil with 95% carrier oil).
Skincare treatments based on Damask rose essential oil.
At Typology, we have developed a skincare firming toner based on Damask rose extract and 0.1% of retinol, the quintessential tightening active ingredient. Suitable for all skin types, it will regulate the skin's pH and combat skin aging. We advise against the use of retinoids during pregnancy and breastfeeding as a precaution.
KOBAYASHI Y. & al. Inhibitory effects of geranium essential oil and its major component, citronellol, on degranulation and cytokine production by mast cells. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry (2016).
DHANABAL S. P. & al. Design and development of polyherbal based cream formulation with anti-skin ageing benefits. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (2017).
AHMED Y. & al. Rosa damascene Mill. (Rose): A versatile herb in cosmetology. Tang Humanitas Medecine (2019).