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What is the meaning of the term VP(-)?

Skin Aging VISIBLE

Oxidation Factor PROTECTED

Sebum Production LOW (-)

The "V" for Visible signs of aging.

The letter "V" indicates that the signs of aging have become visible and are becoming more frequent. Indeed, the small wrinkles at the corners of the mouth and at the corners of the eyes deepen with age, becoming more and more defined, meaning they are now visible both in motion and at rest. Additionally, new folds appear on new areas of the face such as the wrinkles between the eyebrows (frown lines) or the horizontal forehead wrinkles, depending on individual expressions. Apart from wrinkles, the complexion is uneven with pigmentation defects. These various marks that appear on the surface are the result of different changes that occur within all layers of the skin over the years.

A slowdown in the rate of keratinocyte renewal and a decrease in the adhesion of corneocytes are observed starting in the thirties, which impairs the skin's barrier function, making the epidermis more vulnerable to external aggressions, particularly UV rays. Aging is also marked by a decrease of 8 to 10% every 10 years in the cells that produce melanin, a pigment that protects against UV radiation, along with a change in their morphology and distribution, which causes irregular pigmentation on the skin's surface and the appearance of age spots. At the dermis level, the fibroblasts that synthesize collagen, hyaluronic acid, and elastin see their morphology and activity altered, leading to a decrease in the production of essential proteins for skin firmness and elasticity. These phenomena result in the formation of wrinkles.

The letter "P" stands for Protect against oxidation factors.

The letter "P" signifies that the skin is well protected against the sun's UV rays. Beyond these beneficial effects on mood or vitamin D secretion, excessive sun exposure is the main cause of premature skin aging and the onset of skin cancers. Indeed, UVA rays can cause dermal changes , especially in the elastic tissue, and UVB rays lead to epidermal damage. Activation of free radicals, alteration of the cell membrane, DNA modification... UV rays act differently within skin cells to generate damage, which can alter the cell's function, cause its death, or trigger DNA mutations that eventually lead to the formation of cancerous cells. Thus, even though the skin has some defenses against UV rays (melanogenesis, endogenous antioxidant system...), it is important to regularly apply an adequate amount of a sunscreen product suited to one's phototype and sun exposure conditions for reasonable exposure while limiting risks.

The symbol "-" for Low Sebum Production.

The "-" indicates a decrease in the ability of the sebaceous glands to produce enough sebum (sebaceous hyposecretion), as well as a discrepancy in the synthesis of natural moisturizing factors by keratinocytes, which give the skin the ability to retain water. Tightness, irritation, dehydration fine lines, redness, flaking, dull complexion... are characteristic of this skin type.

Indeed, this lack of lipids reduces the effectiveness of the hydrolipidic film. The skin then becomes vulnerable to all forms of aggression (UV rays, pollution, bacteria, etc.), triggering inflammatory responses, and no longer effectively prevents transepidermal water evaporation. Additionally, this alteration in the barrier function leads to a dysregulation of Langerhans cells (cells of the immune system), which begin to induce disproportionate inflammatory responses when they are overly stimulated.

Several factors can influence this low sebum secretion, leading to these disturbances: frequent washing, certain medications, inappropriate care, seasonal variations, tobacco, UV radiation, genetics... However, although this skin type is more prone to wrinkle formation due to its less flexible nature, it is, on the other hand, less susceptible to skin sagging since its thinner epidermis suffers less from the effects of gravitational pull.

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